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Binary options were first introduced to the public in May 2008 and available for trading by American Stock Exchange(AMEX). In this trading method, you can bet on any financial assets and make a good amount of profit in a very short time. When the subprime mortgage crisis in USD occurred on one of the worst financial crises in human history then investors realized that they need a low-risk investment option which led to the emergence of binary options trading. After AMEX launch this trading option for the first time publicly, some new binary options platforms were introduced by brokers such as 24option, Banc De Binary, and AnyOption. Those brokers are considered as the first one in binary options history. After that, we have seen a lot of brokers came into the market. A various trading platform dedicated to options trading emerged and start to support a wide range of crypto assets and tools for trading. https://preview.redd.it/zzn9beb8fpg51.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=95f544d81e379d772187394bac2e62e18e405ca0
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https://preview.redd.it/2lc1we5990s41.jpg?width=400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5417ccb655b01501b4ba0db45e72d5e411cc1baf (Actual, updated) Frequently Asked Questions Unlike a standard FAQ, this (A)FAQ consists of the most commonly asked questions from our community. For much more elaborate FAQ full of questions, some of which no one actually asked, please consult our docs FAQ. For our communications archive, head over here. What is Golem? Golem is a decentralized computation network, a new way of distributing redundant computing power to those who are in need of it, on-demand. It creates a peer-to-peer network where users join on an equal basis to buy and sell computation, splitting up complicated tasks into smaller subtasks in the network. In Golem there’s no central authority and no user is more or less important than another. Who is building Golem? Golem Factory GmbH is responsible for building Golem and all its milestones. Golem Factory GmbH’s website is: https://golem.network Is Golem a Foundation? Golem Factory GmbH is not a Foundation. A GmbH is the Swiss equivalent of an LLC. Golem Factory GmbH has been founded in 2016 and as mentioned above, looks after the build of Golem the project, and its milestones. The Golem Foundation, founded in 2018, is an independent entity, founded by Golem Factory GmbH’s ex CEO and COO, and they work on different projects than Golem Factory (eg. the recently release Wildlands paper). Their website is: https://golem.foundation Golem Foundation and Golem Factory In 2019, Julian and AndrzeJ started the Golem Foundation, aimed to pursue riskier and more exploratory ways to add value to GNT. This is very public. We did press for the endeavor because we wanted to be transparent. See the Coindesk article that was the main pitch, in case you want external sources. See the Wildland AMA and more recently the Wildland Update and Golem Foundation FAQ are great resources for learning more about Golem Foundation. Golem Factory does not work on Wildland and vice versa, Golem Foundation does not work on New Golem / The Next Milestone. Who controls GNT? GNT (Golem Network Token) has been in the free market since the end of 2016. Neither Golem Factory nor the Golem Foundation control the token. Another thing is that we don’t do airdrops. So make sure to stay safe and not succumb to scams. Why should I or a requestor choose Golem? Golem offers freedom of choice and a voice in the community to specify what your requirements are for computation in the network. In the centralized infrastructure of shared computation, if you’re an individual you might not have the voice to specify the tools you need. Golem offers tools focused on your privacy and the flexibility for all providers and requestors to set the price they’re willing to have tasks completed on Golem Network. By cutting out the middle-man and large corporations taking a fee, this allows Golem to be a prosumer market with the potential to simultaneously be cheaper and more profitable for the requestors and providers, respectively. How can one integrate with Golem? If you’re a developer and want to add your code to Golem, the simplest way is to use WebAssembly (WASM). Check out the gWASM section of the documentation to learn more. The good news about WASM is that you can easily compile the code that is written in other languages. So if you have code written in C/C++/RUST, you can compile each to the WebAssembly binary and use it with Golem the same way you’d normally use WebAssembly code. If you don’t want to write anything in those languages or you want to do something more complicated, the Task API allows more versatility and is available on mainnet since the Clay Golem release. Additional resources that would be of interest include Being a Requestor and Acting as a Provider on Golem Network. How is computation verified? There’s no single answer to this question since it can get quite complicated. For the first use-case in Golem, rendering, the requestor renders a small part of the image and compares it with the result they receive from the provider and a machine-learning algorithm gives a verdict. In rendering, there’s a high chance of a small amount of indeterminism and differences in the pixels, which is what makes it complicated. For other use-cases such as WebAssembly, fortunately, it’s much simpler it’s practically easy to make WebAssembly computation deterministic. There’s also a verify function in the Task API to make this process simpler for requestors, to give them the opportunity to write their own method that is suitable for their use case. How is data protected and kept private on Golem Network? For providers, the solution is relatively easy using Sandboxing. You can read about this more in our documentation. The more interesting part of the question is ‘how are we going to protect the data you send as a requestor?’. In the classical scenario where you’re sending you data to the cloud, you’re not getting any protection. It’s essentially a trusted setup between the requestor and providers, an option which is also possible in Golem using Golem Unlimited. How does Golem Unlimited fit in the Golem Network ecosystem? Golem Unlimited allows users to create an internal trusted network of computers with one of them, called the Hub being in charge. The Hub is a requestor and other computers in the company join it as providers. It is meant for data center-like setup (e.g., render farms, or desktops within organization LAN) where network participants trust each other, but it will also support trusted P2P subnetworks (e.g., distributed team machines). App Why is my Golem node not connecting? If you’re having connection issues, see our Issues and Troubleshooting guide in our documentation or reach out to us in our Discord channel. The most common issues for first time setup are related port-forwarding (mentioned in the onboarding process when you setup your node) or Hyper-V. Keep in mind that, if you’re on Windows Home specifically, Hyper-V is not a feature so you have to install docker toolbox instead. What is [email protected]? [email protected] is a scientific modelling project on Golem. The project has been developed in cooperation with the most reputable scientific institutions in the field worldwide. Our relationship with them goes a long way, and our CEO/CTO Piotr Janiuk, was inspired to pursue Golem by such work. Via [email protected], our providers will be able to run help running the computations needed to simulate chemical reactions. What is the Task API? Recently, we introduced the new Task API. The Task API is a python library containing a programming interface and utility functions. Updates created by requestors should be able to answer a short list of RPC calls. You can read more about these calls in our documentation designated to the Task API. What is gWASM? gWASM stands for WebAssembly on Golem. It is intended to be a bridge between applications and extensible infrastructure. It gives your applications or services easy access to external and decentralized computational power. This access happens in an elastic manner, meaning that you rent as much infrastructure as you need and when you need it. What’s the purpose for GNT? With Golem you can exchange computational power, as a commodity or a service for GNT. These are market transactions. The different parties (users) and transactions are part of a small economy with GNT as the value transferred between participants. Within the Golem economy, we are free to define the rules and regulations for it. Our goal, however, is for it to be similar to real-life economies: demand, supply and quality affecting prices should always be included. This economy works in an anonymous and distributed network, which adds a layer of complexity to it. Golem is not a stock market, there is no central point to place bids and offers. Everyone must make their deals on a p2p basis and on their best criteria. Roadmap What does the future and endgame look like for Golem? In order to allow for a future where censorship resistance and privacy is available for everyone, we need to build networks to stimulate such freedoms. What we want to build at Golem is the tool that can connect computers borderless-ly across the world, and without the risk of censorship. Migration What is the ERC20 migration and how will it take place? This refers to us migrating GNT to be a fully ERC20 compliant token. We’ve been working with ETHWorks on finding the best approach for this task. How will GNT’s migration to the ERC20 standard benefit users? Working together with ETHWorks and audit firms, our goal is to make sure that the passage to ERC20 allows the (new)GNT to be able to adapt to various matters: for instance, to be used for layer 2 scaling solutions, or Universal Logins, gassless transactions, among others. Right now, doing gassless transactions with the current GNT is cumbersome, and there are many solutions in the market that would be a great fit if GNT was ERC20. An added (big) benefit for migrating towards ERC20, is to leverage DeFi tools and protocols, especially DEXes. Providing the first (ERC20) GNT liquidity pools for Uniswap and other similar projects is something that’s definitely in our plans for a long time. Why didn’t GNT start out as an ERC20 compliant token? It’s important to keep in mind that relative to the Ethereum space, GNT is quite an old token. When we implemented the GNT contract, the ERC20 standard was in its infancy, and we wanted to limit the exposure to risks stemming from it being at such an early stage. This is why we decided to limit the core GNT implementation to only the necessary ERC20 operations to make it transferable. Migrating GNT to be a fully ERC20 compliant token should open new opportunities to the token users, for example, DeFi (i.e. Decentralized EXchanges and liquidity by Uniswap) and potentially GNT becoming collateral for MCD (Maker’s Multicollateral DAI). Other What measures are in place to mitigate against loss of deposit? We’ve taken very thorough precautions against Golem users losing their deposits. With the recent release of the Concent feature, the Concent deposit a.k.a. GNTDeposit is a smart contract on the Ethereum mainnet which has been properly audited by third-party experts to contain no known vulnerabilities. Similarly to those aforementioned contracts, the balance of GNTDeposit is predominantly still owned by the ethereum address that transferred its tokens into it. The only difference is that the withdraws are time-locked and that there is a privileged entity, the Concent Service, which is able to use those tokens in very specific circumstances, according to the use cases described in the Concent’s documentation and its terms of service. How is GPU integration coming along with MacOS and Windows? There’s difficulty with exposing GPU to Docker containers on Windows and MacOS. GPU support is technically possible on both these operating systems, although we would need to tailor some new computation environments for those operating systems and make sure that the behaviour is consistent between them. While we exclusively rely on Docker it’s not possible to use GPU with Golem on Windows and MacOS. It’s also worth noting that GPU is also not supported in gWASM. Since gWASM uses WASM underneath and that itself currently doesn’t have any notion of multi-threading, which would be required for the computation providers GPU to act as the general processing graphics processing unit (GPGPU). It might be possible to get around that, however, the catch would be that it would kill the determinism which we require in Golem task verification. How much I can earn with configuration XYZ? Golem network is a fully decentralized marketplace therefore we cannot give you any estimates. The amount of tokens that can be earned depends on current demand in the network, the number of other providers, etc. Do you have a bug bounty competition? Yes, we do, you can find the details here: https://blog.golemproject.net/golem-bug-bounty-competition/
Been hammering away at the timeline of the ExoSquad universe. We now have a decently comprehensive timeline spanning from the year 1999 up through 2109. Exosquad Timeline July 24, 1969 - Apollo 11 conducts the first Moon landing on Luna July 8, 1999 - the existence of a 10th planet beyond the orbit of Pluto is postulated. Despite numerous efforts to confirm the existence of such a planet over the next 100 years, no such planet is identified. March 10, 2005 - The Sun’s binary sister star, NEMESIS, is discovered. Its elliptical orbit takes it closest to earth every 60 million years. During its last pass, it wiped out the dinosaurs. August 2, 2009 - First permanent industrial and mining colonies are established on the Moon. Astronauts begin detailed exploration of the other planets. December 30, 2010 - The year marks several advances in artificial intelligence and biology. The earliest methods of communication between computers and the human brain are developed. September 27, 2011 - Deep space probes in Neptune orbit detect the first proven transmissions of intelligent life outside of our solar system. Tracking studies indicate that the signals are from a source moving towards earth space. October 10, 2012 – The first ‘industrial scale’ orbital platform is placed into orbit around earth. Used for a combination of scientific experimentation, energy collection, and interplanetary communication, the platform is designated as “Tinia”. May 4, 2015 - Large space platforms placed in orbit around Venus and Mars. These platforms are intended to be early precursors to proposed terraforming processes as well as scientific platforms. June 22, 2019 - Exceptionally rich mineral deposits discovered on Mars - including minerals never before seen. October 10, 2019 - The Marcus-Vainmoore Enterprises mining branch attempts to short change the Martian mining efforts by launching mining operations in the Asteroid belt. July 17, 2020 - Exotechnology (Exo-tech) developed. The technology is put to work in large scale industrial projects. December 10, 2010 - Exo-tech is utilized for Martian excavation. Dec 2, 2023 - Full-scale terraforming of Venus begins, making extensive use of Exo-tech. Feb. 14, 2017 - Semi-permanent settlements begin appearing on Venus. Problems are encountered with Martian Terraforming, due to the thin atmosphere and low gravity - early colonists die while support resources, intended to allow colonies to be self-sufficient, have significant difficulty in being maintained in the lower gravity of the planet. The Manned orbital stations, that were previously placed in orbit over Venus and Mars are expanded to support more robust operations with additional resources being put into the Martian platforms in the hopes of augmenting the colonization and terra-forming process. Additional platforms are put into orbit around Mercury. January 8, 2028 - The Outer Planet Mining Corporation (OPM) is formed for the purpose of harvesting the valuable minerals from the moons of Saturn, and Jupiter. As a “humanitarian effort” the Earth Congress authorizes the usage of convicts as a labor pool in exchange for reduced sentences. March 15, 2032 - Genetic engineering breakthrough allows manipulation of life forms. “Designer” animals and plant life appear. Serious attempts to begin to develop ‘augmented’ human beings that can endure the rigors of life on Mars and off-world. April 2, 2032 - The first (OPM) mission is launched to Saturn’s moon Tethys. It is designated as “Charon”. September 10, 2032 - Charon makes planetfall on Tethys. Over the next year, the mining complex “Charon” is established and built up to support a population of nearly 3,000 convict laborers. April 5, 2034 - OPM Establishes the mining complex “Cocytus” on Tethys. May 14, 2036 - OPM mining complex “Elysium” is established on Dione. June 24, 2036 - Larger deposits are discovered on Tethys. Expansions for the Charon mining complex are set in motion that will be carried out over the next 5 years intended to expand its mining capacity. Its support capacity would ultimately be increased to 5,500 convicts making it the largest of the Saturn Mining complexes. June 20, 2038 - OPM Mining complex “Phlegethon” is established on Enceladus. June 2, 2040 - Scientists succeed in creating a new strain of evolutionarily advanced humans known as “Neosapians”. June 19, 2040 - OPM Mining complex “Lethe” is established on Titan. December 25, 2042 - OPM Mining complex “Erebus” is established on Tethys. December 9, 2044 - OPM establishes the last of 7 mining complexes in the Saturn planetary system. This last complex is established on the moon of Dione and is designated “Agensader”. Between the 7 mining complexes, a total population of over 23,000 people is present for mining. May 5, 2045 - Earth and Venus form the “Home World Senate”. Humans from these two planets become known as ‘TERRANS’. “Zeus Reborn”, a 2-year project to repurpose the Tinia Platform is drafted and put into operation. Its purpose is to re-configure the platform to house the Home World Senate central complex. In the interim, the Senate is housed in Sidney. June 1, 2047 – “Zeus Reborn” is completed. The Home World Senate officially moves from Sidney Australia to the Tinia Platform. Jan 4, 2048 - Cloned Neosapiens begin mining and terraforming operations on Mars. October 4, 2048 – Jeremiah Winfield is born. November 10, 2048 - With Neosapians mining on Mars, the cost of the various materials drops significantly to the point that OPM is facing bankruptcy. In an effort to maintain itself, OPM cancels all further supply runs and operations of the Saturn mining network. A cover story about “Saturn Madness” is fabricated and spread, convincing the public at large that the convicts have all gone mad, thus no effort to rescue them is made or suggested. January 1, 2049 - The convicts realize that they have been abandoned. In retaliation, they form the Pirate Clans of Saturn. January 6, 2055 - the first raids by the Pirate Clans are conducted just outside the Martian orbit. Several Marcus-Vainmoore ships are attacked and their cargo stolen. The crews are left alive but are disfigured. The raids grow in frequency over the next several years. January 15, 2055 – OPM is re-organized into Outer Planetary Freight, primarily a shipping company. Abandoning much of their mining background and ambitions. January 30, 2060 – Exo-tech is tested for use in military applications. January 1, 2061 – The Home Worlds Senate passes the Extra-Terrestrial Armed Services decree, formally establishing a unified military force that supersedes the authority of individual armies and is under the direct authority of the Home Worlds Senate. This military is colloquially known as ‘ETAS’. The Extra-Terrestrial Operations Network (ETON) is established and integrated into the Home Worlds senates communications hub. This advent gives ETAS access to all the satellite data available to the Home Worlds Senate itself and allows the Senate to more directly control ETAS. May 1, 2061 – The Exo-Tech development for military applications shows progress. The first star fighters to be fitted with the cyber-link data processing system giving the pilots greater depth of input to the fighter itself. The XAF-221 Badger becomes the first ‘exo-fighter’. October 10, 2061 – The Great Neosapians Birthing Complex is completed on Mars. Accelerated growth and intra-cranial organo-educated implants produce 25,000 Neosapien adults each Martian month, totaling 300,000 per year. December 10, 2061 – Neosapian brood Sci-Alpha-Tau 21699 is completed. This brood includes Phaeton and Marsala. January 19, 2062 – Marsala is appointed as the Production Coordinator for the 3rd Sector of Martian Mining operations, the single largest on Mars. August 25 2065 - Population of Neosapiens increase rapidly. Mars is predominantly populated by these advanced humans. December 2, 2065 - Unrest begins on Mars in the wake of Home World Senate’s decision that ‘artificial’ life forms don’t have the rights of other “natural” humans. Neosapiens demand home rule. January 10, 2068 – Jeremiah Winfield enlists with ETAS. October 10, 2070 – Inspired by Marsala, the great Neosapian rebellion begins. Systematic sabotage slows Martian mining as Marsala calls for negotiations with the Home Worlds congress. The majority of these transmissions go unanswered only serving to further fuel the rebellion. Marcus-Vainmoore Communications is harshly criticized for it’s maintaining of the communications network leading some to believe that the ‘lack of communications’ from the Neosapians is deliberate. October 18, 2070 - Marcus-Vainmoore mining attempts to capitalize on the crisis by upping their mining efforts in the asteroid belt. They establish permanent supply stations and support centers on several of the largest asteroids including Ceras, Vesta, Eros, Bennu, and Juno. Utilizing their political influences, they successfully lobby to have the ETAS’ patrol routes set to include the Asteroid field in order to protect their assets. It is widely suggested that this is done with the ulterior motive of allowing the Neosapian rebellion to continue. February 11, 2071 – Matthew Marcus is born. April 12, 2071 – The Neosapians rebellion intensifies, bringing all mining on mars to a halt. Even with the increased mining from the Asteroid belt, the Home Worlds economy begins to collapse. June 10, 2071 – The Exo-Tech development program brings the concepts of cyber-links and exo-skeletons together, allowing the designers to create vehicles with the fire power of a tank, but the control options and benefits that had made the XAF-221 Badger so popular. These are the direct precursors to the “Exo-Frames”. Jeremiah Winfield becomes the leader of one of the first ‘E-frame Squads’ designated “Blue Alpha”. August 1, 2071 – the ETAS puts in a substantial order for the new “Exo-Frames” as works to modernize its forces. The “E-frame” becomes so synonymous with the ETAS, that the organization comes to be known as the “Exo-Fleet”. As the Exo-Fleet develops, more and more state-based militaries are either absorbed into it, or simply dissolved as they are viewed as being redundant and unneeded. November 1, 2071 – Exo-Fleet is called on to quell the Martian Rebellion. November 6, 2071 – The Exo-Fleet moves into controlling orbit of Mars and begins conducting lightning raids against Neosapain held locations. The newly formed “E-frame Squads” prove devastatingly effective. November 13, 2071 – Marsala is captured by Blue Alpha and the rebellion is broken. Calls for Marsala to be tried for leading the rebellion are made. Legal counsel offers a motion that because Marsala is not a “Natural Born” he is not entitled to a trial for his actions, but likewise cannot be held accountable for them any more than a dog that is beaten by its owner can be held accountable when it attacks someone. The Companies that had financed and controlled the mining operations on Mars are put on trial for the Rebellion. December 1, 2071 – with the recent success of the E-frame tactics, previous plans for the Exo-fleet are scrapped. Ship orders are canceled in favor of some form of not yet designed ‘Exo carrier’ and more emphasis is placed on the utilization of E-frames. January 10, 2074 – The trials of the Martian mining companies are completed. There are numerous fines and jail sentences passed down as it is determined that the business practices and operations of the Martian Mining companies lead directly to the rebellion and the effects on the Home Worlds’ economy that caused. The Neosapians are granted custodial control of Mars. March 5, 2074 – Several groups begin campaigning for Neosapians to be allowed to join the Exo-Fleet. These demands are presently ignored. Sept 2, 2076 - Neosapiens allowed to sit on the Home World Senate primarily as observers only. For matters of official status, their delegate is given a ‘non-voting’ seat. February 28, 2086 - Despite Neosapian protest, approval is given to build another massive Excavation project in the southern hemisphere of Mars. March 12, 2089 - Homeworld Senate rejects Neosapien bid for complete autonomy. March 14, 2089 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the “Exo-Carrier Construction program”, a combination development, test-bed, and construction program intended to modernize the Exo-Fleet, cut down on costs by developing purpose built ships, and to replace the currently 60 year old ship designs presently utilized by the Exo-Fleet. April 4, 2092 - The Neosapien leader Phaeton becomes spokesman for the Neosapien population of mars in their disputes with the Terrans. April 12, 2092 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Yumoto class Exo-cruiser. Ships to come out of this class include the Bismarck, and Sakura. May 20, 2093 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Kuznetsov-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Borealis. October 10, 2094 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Helgoland-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Coronado. June 1, 2099 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Resolve-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Dominion, and Sovereign. May 15, 2100 – The HWS Bismarck is launched October 30, 2100 – the HWS Sakura is launched. December 1, 2100 – The Home Worlds Senate Approves the Resolute variant of the Resolve class of Exo-carriers and orders one to become the new flagship of the Exo-fleet. May 15, 2016 – The HWS Dominion is launched. It is temporarily named the Exo-fleet flagship. May 15, 2107 – The HWS Borealis is launched. October 30, 2107 – the HWS Coronado is launched. May 10, 2108 – The Home Worlds Senate passes the ETAS Militarization prioritization decree cutting back on weapons and military-type hardware that can be possessed by non-military operations. The Neosapiens are very specifically mentioned as not being permitted to possess any form of military hardware. October 19, 2108 - Neosapiens protest the ETAS Militarization prioritization decree as it is being applied to include industrial-scale transport systems under the idea of “military hardware”. This forces the Neosapians to rely on the transport options provided by the likes of Marcus-Vainmoore, Outer Planetary Freight, and the Martian Mining Conglomerate. November 18, 2109 – In an effort to appease the Neosapian and lessen tensions, the Home Worlds Senate passes the ETAS Combined Arms decree, permitting a limited number of Neosapians to enlist with the Exo-Fleet. Marsala immediately enlists and it is permitted, both for political reasons and for the belief that if he’s kept isolated from the Neosapiens at large, it’s less likely that the could start a second rebellion.
The following post by BinaryResult is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been silently removed. The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link: reddit: /Bitcoin/comments/6jlop4 The original post's content was as follows:
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary.
Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works.
Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
Low fee - Transactions fees can vary between a few cents and a few dollars depending on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate the fee automatically but you can view current fees here.
Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found here. Bitcoin statistics can be found here, here and here. Developer resources can be found here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here. The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here. Scaling resources here, and of course the whitepaper that started it all.
Where can I buy bitcoins?
BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com and Howtobuybitcoin.io are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also, check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Cashila or Bitwage. Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoins
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, there are many software wallet options here. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor or Ledger is recommended. A more advanced option is to secure them yourself using paper wallets generated offline. Some popular mobile and desktop options are listed below and most are cross platform.
If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Coinbase or Xapo but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Another interesting use case for physical storage/transfer is the Opendime. Opendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin by physically passing it along so it's anonymous and tangible like cash. Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! 2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out. If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. Bitseed is an easy option for getting set up. You can view the global node distribution here.
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)
The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
1,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (?L) or micrometre (?m)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
100,000,000 per bitcoin
Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval. Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
Banks serve many features in society. For one factor, billions of taxes are generated by the banking sector yearly. Wealth created by the banks strengthen the nationwide buying energy, which ends up in an extra secure financial system. As well as, banks are necessary employers. The highest 20 banks within the US make use of greater than 1.2 million folks - JP Morgan Chase & Co alone employs greater than 228,000 folks. The vast majority of Individuals deposit their cash in checking and savings accounts in banks for protected retaining. Read also:
JP Morgan Chase & Co was shaped on account of a merger of a number of banking corporations in 1996. It's a multinational banking and monetary service supplier with its headquarters in New York Metropolis. At present, it's the largest financial institution within the US. With an asset base of two.53 trillion, JP Morgan Chase & Co additionally ranks inside the prime ten for all global investment banks. The financial institution employs greater than 228,000 staff and operates in over 100 nations. It supplies monetary companies to thousands and thousands of shoppers, small companies and lots of the world's distinguished firms, establishments, and governments. bank of America reddit
2. Financial institution of America (BoA) - $2,281 Billion
The Financial institution of America was shaped on October 17, 1904, by Amadeo Giannini. It was initially often known as the Financial institution of Italy. The financial institution is an American multinational banking and monetary service firm with its headquarters in Charlotte, North Carolina. It's ranked second when it comes to the asset base behind JP Morgan Chase & Co. It has 5,100 banking retailers, 16,300 ATMs, and greater than 150,939 staff.
What's the Largest Financial institution in the USA?
The biggest financial institution within the US is JP Morgan Chase and Co.
3. Wells Fargo - $1,951 Billion
Wells Fargo is the third largest financial institution within the US by complete property. The banking establishment was based on March 18, 1852, by Henry Wells and William Fargo. Its headquarters are in San Francisco California. Wells Fargo is the world’s largest financial institution when it comes to market capitalization and the third largest within the US by with an asset base of $1.951 trillion.
4. Citigroup - $1,843
Citigroup was based on June 16, 1812. Citibank is the patrol division of the monetary service multinational Citigroup with its headquarters in Manhattan, New York. In North America, Citibank has 983 branches. It supplies normal banking transactions, market insurance coverage, bank cards and online division which claims 15 million customers.
5. Goldman Sachs Group - $916
Goldman Sachs Group was based in 1869 by Marcus Goldman and Samuel Sachs. It's headquartered in New York. The agency’s first funding was pioneering the usage of industrial papers for traders and entrepreneurs. As of 2016, the financial institution had almost 35,000 staff; its complete property amounted to $916 billion. The corporate operates in Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
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Gene therapy treatment for blood disease approved in Europe by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago Why is the guy's skin in the picture green like that? I think that communicates the wrong impression, like you start to turn into "the Hulk" too or you have to get stem cells from "the Hulk" or something. I mean he is not full "Hulk" yet, but he definitely looks like he is starting to turn into him for sure. Like maybe it is a side effect. I find it interesting and a bit unsettling how China (PRC) was the first to attempt this form of CRISPR-Cas9 treatment. As a direct result of the world wide knowledge of what China was doing, a universal moratorium http://www.crisprupdate.com/scientists-seek-moratorium-on-edits-to-human-genome-that-could-be-inherited/ was instituted to keep that kind of experimentation from proceeding. In a word the West was "alarmed". Now I see what is happening and it makes perfect sense to me. You keep up with China, or you get "disrupted". permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Where is Augmented and Virtual Reality Technology Headed? by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 3 months ago That's right by golly! https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7r42h0/vr_is_going_to_be_like_nothing_the_world_has_eve permalinksavecontextfull comments (2)editdelete CRISPR-Cas9 Improved 10,000-Fold by Synthetic Nucleotides by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 3 months ago I thought CRISPR-Cas9 was already right specific. Can someone ELI5 how a ten thousand fold improvement in specificity will enable us to defeat all congenital conditions. And probably all pathologies too I suppose. permalinksavecontextfull comments (9)editdelete Double beds and urinals at 35,000 feet – introducing the aircraft interiors of the future by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago Interesting. I wonder which it is going to be now. Rockets that get us anywhere on Earth in like 30 minutes or luxury 16 hour totally VR enabled flights for coach passengers. Vision of rockets for Earth travel: https://www.recode.net/2018/4/11/17227036/flight-spacex-gwynne-shotwell-space-ted-conference-interview permalinksavecontextfull comments (2)editdelete AI must be 'for common good' by Benjaminsen in Futurology [–]izumi3682 1 point 3 months ago I think you are thinking too locally and limitedly as well. Pull back your view. https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/6zu9yo/in_the_age_of_ai_we_shouldnt_measure_success/dmy1qed/ permalinksavecontextfull comments (21)editdelete Will technology ever allow people to experience specific mental fantasies via virtual reality? by infin8ty in Futurology [–]izumi3682 2 points 3 months ago Consider the Wright Brother's "aeroplane". Then think of today's modern aircraft. The VR we have right now is a Wright craft. VR and our minds will surely join. Try the "red pill" ;) https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7r42h0/vr_is_going_to_be_like_nothing_the_world_has_eve permalinksavecontextfull comments (4)editdelete NIST's new quantum method generates really random numbers by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago Is this a step closer to a quantum computer being capable of more general purpose computing? For example in 1945 we used binary computers for extremely limited applications. The only application I am aware of from 1945 was using binary computers to calculate artillery trajectories. Is something like that analogous to "optimization"? Getting from calculating artillery trajectories to doing everything we do today was not a one year process. Tons of insights, innovations and discoveries accompanied that. I remember making Christmas wreaths out of old punchcards when I was a Cub Scout. Then we would get to spray paint them gold or green. The effect was fairly impressive. Somebody got a ton of them from somewhere. But can we extrapolate that kind of progress (at a potentially much faster rate) with the implementation of quantum computers? Is it likely that humans will learn how to use quantum computers in the same manner that we use binary computers today? Perhaps quantum computers will simply "transcend" (replace) binary computers? Or will we forever be hobbled by having to use binary computers with quantum computers as some kind of piggyback enhancement. Or will they forever stay two separate tracks. Granted, an "exa-scale" supercomputer or whatever comes after an "exa" computer would be pretty insane in it's own right I imagine. I need to know all this and how ballpark soon, because it is important to my ascension to the realm of umm... "Dark Overlord of the Universe". (Yes, I got that from "Howard the Duck", but honestly, the intent is still accurately described.) What. We all have our own personal aspirations I'm sure. Now you know mine. permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Peptide-based biogenic dental product may cure cavities by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 3 months ago Important takeaway: The peptide-enabled technology allows the deposition of 10 to 50 micrometers of new enamel on the teeth after each use. Once fully developed, the technology can be used in both private and public health settings, in biomimetic toothpaste, gels, solutions and composites as a safe alternative to existing dental procedures and treatments. permalinksavecontextfull comments (16)editdelete Will Self-Driving Cars End The Big Automakers? by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 3 months ago That's a generational attitude. In 1898 very few humans trusted the internal combustion engine over the reliable and easily controlled horse. But by 1908 horses were already beginning to disappear. By 1922 horses were very rare on New York City thoroughfares. Progress marches on. You don't trust SDVs, but a child of say, age 2, that grows up in today's world will never have known a world without SDVs, AI, VR, and human robots walking around like it's no big deal. For me at age 57, it is super important for me to keep my optimistic and somewhat irrationally exuberant outlook. I will fully trust level 5 autonomy SDVs when they do arrive in the next year or so. permalinksavecontextfull comments (13)editdelete Will Self-Driving Cars End The Big Automakers? by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago I think level 5 autonomy SDVs will end a business model that is over 100 years in existence. Namely personal ownership. I'm positive that once humans see how awesome it is to get a car within a few minutes of calling for one, they will never look back. No car insurance, no maintenance. You can't keep your stuff in the car, but you would have no desire to. Nor personalize. Private ownership will continue for a good while I'm sure, but humans will change to this new way very quickly I bet. Like in less than 10 years, easy. I'm not sure how all the infrastructure will work with this, like keeping the car smelling nice and not be all gross and whatnot. permalinksavecontextfull comments (13)editdelete Your fancy new car steers and brakes for you; so why keep your hands on the wheel? by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] -1 points 3 months ago The concept is a simple one. Any vehicle from 0 to 4 autonomy requires a fully licensed driver who should at all times keep their hands on the wheel and feet close to the brakes or accelerator. A level 4 autonomy SDV is in my opinion, far more dangerous than a human driving a normal unenhanced car. The reason is that human will be asleep or too deeply engrossed to take over when the car senses imminent danger when the human must take over in seconds or less... When you get into a level 5 autonomy SDV, you will see no steering wheel, brake or accelerator. You do not have to be a fully licensed driver to use a level 5 autonomy SDV. The question is, are level 5 autonomy vehicles going to be released in the next year or two? If not, then we keep on with learning to drive, licensing and behaving as if you are the fully manual driver, despite the fact that you are falling asleep or tempted to watch a movie. You are responsible for what happens still. I will trust a level 5 autonomy vehicle 100%. I will trust level 4 autonomy and below 100% only if the human driver is 100% in control at all times. The most recent figure I have for human caused MVA deaths (in the USA) is 32,000 for the year 2016. Will we see the figure begin to decline in 2018? Will a level 2-4 autonomy vehicle modify these figures? permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Proscia is Fighting Cancer with Artificial Intelligence by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 3 months ago Ultimately, though, Proscia is about more than placating scientists about robots taking their salaries. It’s about saving lives. TL;DR Proscia is replacing technologists, scientists, even pathologists with narrow AI and automation. Me: Why is anybody even surprised anymore? This is what narrow AI is really good at. AI never has a 'bad day". permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Atlantic Circulation Weakening: No, We’re Not All Gonna Die (I Mean, Not Because Of This)[sic] by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago I bet the UK gets a lot colder though. Isn't London close to the same latitude of Moscow? And I know it gets right cold in Moscow. Doesn't the Gulf Stream keep the UK pretty mild? permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete NIST's new quantum method generates real random numbers by [deleted] in Futurology [–]izumi3682 1 point 3 months ago Is this a step closer to a quantum computer being capable of more general purpose computing? For example in 1945 we used binary computers for extremely limited applications. The only application I am aware of from 1945 was using binary computers to calculate artillery trajectories. Is something like that analogous to "optimization"? Getting from calculating artillery trajectories to doing everything we do today was not a one year process. Tons of insights, innovations and discoveries accompanied that. I remember making Christmas wreaths out of old punchcards when I was a Cub Scout. Then we would get to spray paint them gold or green. The effect was fairly impressive. Somebody got a ton of them from somewhere. But can we extrapolate that kind of progress (at a potentially much faster rate) with the implementation of quantum computers? Is it likely that humans will learn how to use quantum computers in the same manner that we use binary computers today? Perhaps quantum computers will simply "transcend" (replace) binary computers? Or will we forever be hobbled by having to use binary computers with quantum computers as some kind of piggyback enhancement. Or will they forever stay two tracks. Granted, an "exa-scale" supercomputer or whatever comes after an "exa" computer would be pretty insane in it's own right I imagine. I need to know all this and how ballpark soon, because it is important to my ascension to the realm of umm... "Dark Overlord of the Universe". (Yes, I got that from "Howard the Duck", but honestly, the intent is still accurately described.) What. We all have our own personal aspirations I'm sure. Now you know mine. permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete A virtual reality hand feels real after a zap to your brain by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago Well one of the things I say is that we will inevitably leave biology behind to get the VR worlds we want. So that idea is not so far fetched as you may think. https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/7r42h0/vr_is_going_to_be_like_nothing_the_world_has_eve permalinksavecontextfull comments (6)editdelete Revolut CTO Reveals Why Cash Will Disappear Sooner Than You Think by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 3 months ago Yes, I have often stated that the only way that UBI would ever truly work would be if I was the only one getting it. It would be such a tiny little tax on each human (apart from me) that people would scarce notice. I mean, don't tell anybody, they might get mad at me. But if you start giving everybody UBI it would probably water it down so much that it would no longer be so helpful. (For me I mean.) permalinksavecontextfull comments (3)editdelete A virtual reality hand feels real after a zap to your brain by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 3 months ago Unfortunately it is going to take a lot of creative zapping of the human brain to bring taste and smell into VR worlds. Silly analogs like mouth pieces and packaged scents like banana are just not going to work. Speaking of smell, let me relate something. I work in a outlying medical clinic. Every once in a while we get a patient that has a bad odor around them. Not BO so much as a horrible unwashed stench. One human can easily stink up a significant portion of the building. So I got to thinking--if we have VR zombies with VR zombie smell--I promise you, you will never be taken by surprise by a zombie like in "The Walking Dead". You will smell one coming a thousand feet away and if its a bunch of them? The odor would be overwhelming long before they came into view. Anyway I'm just sayin'. Now how on Earth we are going to make interfaces that allow us to experience "deepdive" VR or what VR derives into, I don't have a clue. But humans being humans we are going to do our darndest to see if we can recreate like "The Matrix". But even better. It will be our minds interfacing while we sit in a chair, like a lucid dream you can consciously control or something. Think "Black Mirror" 'USS Calister', but without the slave minds hopefully. And the darndest thing is? We will succeed. And within 100 years easily. permalinkunsavecontextfull comments (6)editdelete Revolut CTO Reveals Why Cash Will Disappear Sooner Than You Think by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 3 months ago Cashless is not the answer. The answer is having a society where a medium of exchange is no longer necessary because pretty much everything is valueless and available to everyone for free. The concept of financial poverty should cease to have meaning. Pretty soon we will have the technology to do this, but it is hard to change a 6,000 year old habit. I may sound pie-in-the-sky unrealistic, but this is what much smarter humans than me are advocating, like Peter Diamandis. Here is something that due to technology is going to lose value quickly. https://www.sciencealert.com/how-artificial-diamonds-are-made-microwave-methane-gas-lab-ethical I also suspect that vehicles will not for much longer be owned, but will be part of low price yearly subscription. The 99% will vote with their shrinking bank accounts. Sure this generation will resist, but children who are 2 years old today will embrace it as a natural thing. And laugh about the way we used to think. And how we would manually drive! OMG! :O permalinksavecontextfull comments (3)editdelete How Will Merging Minds and Machines Change Our Conscious Experience? by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 3 months ago That is not something we can imagine, little less comprehend in the year 2018. The reason the "technological singularity" is called a "singularity" is because just like our current understanding of physics breaks down and we can't model what happens within the singularity of a black hole, so too our understanding of what we would experience after the technological singularity is just as impossible to model. We hope for the singularity to be as "human friendly" as possible. And I think we are now taking some steps in the right direction with developments like "NeuroLink" and methods of keeping the AI narrow, but joining it to our very minds in some kind of way. We would not, of course, be the same creatures after that in any event. But the bottom line is this. The AI, in whatever form is not only an unstoppable juggernaut, but it is in effect becoming exponentially more powerful about every six months. And we can't put the cat back in the bag, even if we wanted to. We don't want to. Our science, technology and even economy is now too inextricably tied to the accelerating development of AI. Now I think it has come down to a race against time to get it right. 5 to 10 years. Boy, talk about a filter... permalinksavecontextfull comments (5)editdelete In Uber's Vision of the Future, Every Form of Transport Is Fair Game by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 3 months ago Despite the recent tragedy in Arizona, Uber is not going away. They are deeply involved in the development of AI intrinsic to SDVs. I also admire their efforts to develop a sort of post-scarcity style subscription service that is low priced and highly dependable. Their ultimate goal is to ensure that any human that needs a ride somewhere can get one. Safely, effectively and most importantly for the vast majority of the 99%--cheaply. permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Here's the AI documentary Elon Musk thinks is essential viewing by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 3 months ago Your link is gone now. At least for USA. But you are right. The sound does cut in and out on my link. Reminds me of my old "copy-guard" 1980's. permalinksavecontextfull comments (7)editdelete Here's the AI documentary Elon Musk thinks is essential viewing by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 3 months ago We have zero choice. Either the AI remains external from us and becomes something very much akin to AGI, if not straight up AGI, not to mention the very real possibility of EI (emergent intelligence). This would quickly (within seconds) cause homo sapiens to be the secondary sentience on Earth. And by quite a wide margin to boot. Think humans vs. "archaea". It is a total 50/50 proposition if that would be heaven or hell. I wouldn't want to take the chance. What is terrifying to ponder is that this outcome is more than likely a natural phenomenon in the universe with any biology that can reach tool making sentience. We are simply in the "larval" stage of intelligence right now. This despite all of our Einstein and Hitler and Boyle's Law and the pyramids of Egypt and screamingly funny cat videos and The Beatles and climate change and 1970's television and the American Civil War or the English Civil War for that matter. It will all vanish in the new AI as if it never existed. After all do we care that much about the history and culture of "archaea"? Same difference. The only realistic choice is that we continue to develop means for the human mind to gain access to what we hope remains narrow AI. I see that we are working to develop the so-called "NeuroLink" and that is a good step in the right direction. Every single human mind would have access not only to the sum total of human knowledge, but the ability to continuously gain information at a rate that is fully beyond our capacity in the year 2018 to fathom, little less understand. The outcome will be a human/AI sentience that may likely be something we would not recognize in any event. Still a "butterfly" from the larva. But at least humans would still be the primary sentience on Earth. Hopefully the AI still does not manage to control us. Nevertheless this option is still the only realistic one we have now. I stated something that is based on what exactly is going on here earlier. Raymond Kurzweil is the proponent. I would say the chances are 90% that most humans do not understand what Raymond Kurzweil is proposing. Anyway here is the comment I made a while back if you are interested. https://www.reddit.com/Futurology/comments/6zu9yo/in_the_age_of_ai_we_shouldnt_measure_success/dmy1qed/ permalinksavecontextfull comments (7)editdelete Here's the AI documentary Elon Musk thinks is essential viewing by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 4 points 3 months ago I just watched this. It's absolutely superb. No futurist should miss this. I paid to permanently own the streaming video. You can also rent it, but i chose to own so i can show everyone. I am izumi3682. I'm the one that posted this link. I posted it before even watching the video, but when it said that Elon Musk--who also appears in it, was impressed, that impressed me too. This video is the honest and real deal right up to "Cambridge Analytica" today. TL;DR : In as little as 5 years, but definitely not more than 10 years the AI will take over unless it is a part of us. The AI scientists in the video explain why this will be. Maybe somebody can hack it and it will be on YouTube for free or something. I just consider myself an "early adopter" in that case. It should be on YouTube for free. Oh well what do you know. I found a Russian hack on YouTube! I can't guarantee quality, but here it is. The video has been on YouTube for 5 days now. It may get removed, so see it quick! It is one hour and 18 minutes long. You won't be bored. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SghmYtar-OY I just checked the YouTube video, the quality appears to be near perfect with 1080p rez and excellent sound on my pc anyways. I was stupid to spend 5.99, but that is ok. I just want to get the information out there. permalinksavecontextfull comments (7)editdelete Leaked Tesla Image Reveals Full Self-Driving User Interface by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 3 months ago This is the part I ate up! ;) Musk told investors during the company’s fourth quarter earnings call in February that the artificial intelligence will work like other (AI) system(s) in that it will improve exponentially. Claiming that he’s “pretty excited about how much progress we’re making on the neural net front,” he said progress will “feel like, ‘well this is a lame driver, lame driver, well actually this is a pretty good driver, like holy cow this driver’s good.’” permalinksavecontextfull comments (1)editdelete Supercomputer models cloud microphysics by izumi3682 in Futurology [–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 3 months ago When I come across articles like this. Articles that are about simulating this or that. Then I read other articles describing how incredible worlds that are rendered by Nvidia or Unreal Engine 4 are already. I tend to extrapolate. So in like about 50 years just think how those two technologies will have advanced. And then put something like VR with that. Today the VR is primitive, but I bet it will not be so primitive in 50 years. I look at that simple videogame called "No Man's Sky". It actually was released about 2 years ago I think. The thing about that game is that it uses a surprisingly few laws of physics to procedurally generate a stupendous number of "visitable" worlds. The few laws of physics are so that things make sense. It probably does not even qualify as a proper simulation. I don't know how many worlds you can actually have in existence at one time, but in 50 years we will have the computing power and AI, probably AGI, to render something akin to a visitable galaxy. And then a full visitable universe in 100 or 200 more years. If we still care about that kind of thing I mean. God knows what the mixing of AI and the human mind will ultimately lead to.
I (CAN) invested $5,000 with CTOptions a binary broker located in the UK, had my account managed by them, and they traded down my account to $800. I believe they are a scam. I wrote a blog about it, and was told they will forward it to their legal if I don't erase the website. What should i do?
Hi Reddit here is what happened. In February 2015 I was referred to their site by someone from fiverr. I was looking up binary options as a way to trade and hopefully make some money on the side. My referrer guaranteed to trade on my behalf.. I deposited $1,000 dollars to CTOption and waited a month. A whole month went by and nothing happened, so I withdrew half my money, as I didn’t feel safe with having money on the account. I was charged with a withdraw fee. I complained, then someone from CTOption by the name of James Russell called me and told me he was going to make things right. He offered to connect my account to their replicator Pro, managed by George West. I thought I’d experiment with it since it was only $500. In a month they traded my account from $500 to $1,000. I was quite amazed, but I was told I could not withdraw the money until I met their minimum deposit, which was $5,000. I would be given an insurance of $2,000 for this. I got suckered in, and put in $3,000 and let them trade. After some months, my $4,000 turn into $6,000, I let it run for a bit longer before putting the final $1,000 in. In July 2015, CTOption made 3 long term 3-month trades of $500 each. I panicked because I thought I had lost some money, but James assured me that their long term trades were their best performers. I have to wait 3 months, until the end of September to see if the trades won or lost. August 2015, I had another $1,000 profit, but they put in 5 long term trades of $500 that would end in October 2015. Recap. I have now $3,300 open capital, and about $4,000 in long term trades. August 26, 2015. THEY LOSE $2,500 in a single night. I woke up in panic, then James called me and told me that it won’t happen again, as someone was chasing trades, and they have clients that are happy with their service. He tried to reassure me, then gave me a $1,000 insurance. I now had $1,800 open capital, with $4,000 in long term trades. A week later, after a ‘few bad trades’, my account was left with $1,089. I decided to withdraw my money. 2 weeks later the money did not come in. I waited and waited, until James called me and told me that because my account was still connected to the replicator pro, and there was a few bad trades, my account was now traded down to 2 digits and I couldn’t make the withdraw. This happened in September 2015. Also, by this time, the 3 long term trades that were placed in July, were now losses. The 3 trades ended and I lost $1,500. I contacted them, but they didn’t provide me with adequate responses. A month later, 5 of the long term trades totalling to $2,500 were now on the losing payout. I was lucky until the last day, only 1 out of the 5 did not fail as a loss, and I managed to get $800. I emailed and emailed, and no one was giving me a response. They totally ignore me. January 11, 2016. I managed to get my blog site up with a story similar to this, but with all screenshots and documentation and I labelled them as scammers, and there was a lot more fury in that post, and forwarded to George West, the manager at CTOption. On that day, I get a call from CTOption support saying I was given my other $1,000 insurance, but I must trade to a volume of $1,000 in order to withdraw. It was only this day I get attention. I don't trust their system, so I have not touched that money yet. However George said my site was defamatory and false, and he will forward it to the legal department if I don’t remove it. The ball is in my hand. I have already forward the case to Financial Security Authority in the UK, but they don’t regulate this company. My credit card company can’t give the chargeback because the purchase was not unauthorized. I don't think I should take this case to the court because it is not worth it. But what can I do? Thanks
I (CAN) invested $5,000 with CTOptions a binary broker located in the UK, had my account managed by them, and they traded down my account to $800. I believe they are a scam. I wrote a blog about it, and was told they will forward it to their legal if I don't erase the website. What should i do?
Hi Reddit I was redirect to post on this forum from legaladvice here is the original post https://www.reddit.com/legaladvice/comments/40o3lo/i_can_invested_5000_with_ctoptions_a_binary/ copy here. In February 2015 I was referred to their site by someone from fiverr. I was looking up binary options as a way to trade and hopefully make some money on the side. My referrer guaranteed to trade on my behalf.. I deposited $1,000 dollars to CTOption and waited a month. A whole month went by and nothing happened, so I withdrew half my money, as I didn’t feel safe with having money on the account. I was charged with a withdraw fee. I complained, then someone from CTOption by the name of James Russell called me and told me he was going to make things right. He offered to connect my account to their replicator Pro, managed by George West. I thought I’d experiment with it since it was only $500. In a month they traded my account from $500 to $1,000. I was quite amazed, but I was told I could not withdraw the money until I met their minimum deposit, which was $5,000. I would be given an insurance of $2,000 for this. I got suckered in, and put in $3,000 and let them trade. After some months, my $4,000 turn into $6,000, I let it run for a bit longer before putting the final $1,000 in. In July 2015, CTOption made 3 long term 3-month trades of $500 each. I panicked because I thought I had lost some money, but James assured me that their long term trades were their best performers. I have to wait 3 months, until the end of September to see if the trades won or lost. August 2015, I had another $1,000 profit, but they put in 5 long term trades of $500 that would end in October 2015. Recap. I have now $3,300 open capital, and about $4,000 in long term trades. August 26, 2015. THEY LOSE $2,500 in a single night. I woke up in panic, then James called me and told me that it won’t happen again, as someone was chasing trades, and they have clients that are happy with their service. He tried to reassure me, then gave me a $1,000 insurance. I now had $1,800 open capital, with $4,000 in long term trades. A week later, after a ‘few bad trades’, my account was left with $1,089. I decided to withdraw my money. 2 weeks later the money did not come in. I waited and waited, until James called me and told me that because my account was still connected to the replicator pro, and there was a few bad trades, my account was now traded down to 2 digits and I couldn’t make the withdraw. This happened in September 2015. Also, by this time, the 3 long term trades that were placed in July, were now losses. The 3 trades ended and I lost $1,500. I contacted them, but they didn’t provide me with adequate responses. A month later, 5 of the long term trades totalling to $2,500 were now on the losing payout. I was lucky until the last day, only 1 out of the 5 did not fail as a loss, and I managed to get $800. I emailed and emailed, and no one was giving me a response. They totally ignore me. January 11, 2016. I managed to get my blog site up with a story similar to this, but with all screenshots and documentation and I labelled them as scammers, and there was a lot more fury in that post, and forwarded to George West, the manager at CTOption. On that day, I get a call from CTOption support saying I was given my other $1,000 insurance, but I must trade to a volume of $1,000 in order to withdraw. It was only this day I get attention. I don't trust their system, so I have not touched that money yet. However George said my site was defamatory and false, and he will forward it to the legal department if I don’t remove it. The ball is in my hand. I have already forward the case to Financial Security Authority in the UK, but they don’t regulate this company. My credit card company can’t give the chargeback because the purchase was not unauthorized. I don't think I should take this case to the court because it is not worth it. I would like to keep the site live, but am afraid of the legal implications. hoping someone could help out Thanks
BitCoin Code Review - SCAM Software Release?!! Does the System oR Software Worth or Scam!!
BitCoin Code Review - SCAM Software Release?!! Does the System oR Software Worth or Scam!! The Bitcoin Code Review Is The Bitcoin Code Software SCAM Or NOT? The Bitcoin Code Trading Software By Mr. Steve McKay The Bitcoin Code Scam Or Legit? How Does The Bitcoin Code System Work? Is It Possible To Earning Extra Fortune With The Bitcoin Code Software? Discover Today Why Bitcoin Code Trading APP Is The Best for your investment options. ==> First Download Free Bitcoin Code With Bonus $1000 From The Official Website ==> The Bitcoin Code APP is a new automated robot designed and developed By Steve McKay. You will get to learn its features, pros, about Bitcoin Code Trading APP, How The Bitcoin Code Software Works and much more. Unlike other binary options trading scams that have graced the binary options market passing themselves as genuine The Bitcoin Code Auto Trading Softwares, The Bitcoin Code system is the real deal. Steve McKay Bitcoin Code Binary Trading System is a brand new signals service that provides all the tools and features designed to make money for you With The Bitcoin Code Website. The Bitcoin Code is composed of experienced traders who have managed to become very successful online finally improving their profits and winning rates. The Bitcoin Code APP Trading is very popular in many countries around the globe. However, most people still ask the question “can you really make money in The Bitcoin Code Software”. In this The Bitcoin Code Reviews I will try to answer this question and give you more information and tips on how you can make money with The Bitcoin Code Auto Trading Software. The Bitcoin Code System Overview Binary Software Name : The Bitcoin Code Official The Bitcoin Code website : TheBitcoinCode.com The Bitcoin Code CEO : Steve McKay Money-back Promise : 2 months Delivery amount : fast Delivery The Bitcoin Code Bonus offer :$1000 The Bitcoin Code Download: Free The Bitcoin Code Review We are here to decode what The Bitcoin Code has in store for you Does It Works. The Bitcoin Code System is the brain child of Founder Steve McKay. Brian along with his huge effective team of employees has created The Bitcoin Code software which has best binary trading APP in 2017! The Bitcoin Code software is the best auto trader app launched in the recent times. The Bitcoin Code system has already been proven in over 1,342 trading sessions with only 1 losing day! During the trading day it obviously has some losing trades, but what impressed us about Bitcoin Code software is that it has been making daily profits on such a consistent basis! Bitcoin Code system is capable of fully automated Binary Options trading, as well as semi-automated trading, which is my preferred method. We have inside knowledge that all their The Bitcoin Code figures are being checked by accountants and lawyers, and have also been submitted to review by the Securities Authority of the US and Japan Stock Exchanges. They wouldn’t do all that unless The Bitcoin Code Investments Ltd is very confident about the outcome! Hang on, because our The Bitcoin Code Review has a lot more to reveal About The Bitcoin Code system!
Features Of The Bitcoin Code Software
Watch over the Shoulder of a Pro Every Day and you can learn as you trade.
Averaging 89% Winning Weeks – which means more potential profits for you to make good profits.
The Bitcoin Code APP is completely transparent which has only lost once in the last 1342 trading sessions.
You can trade with The Bitcoin Code System on the go with your smartphone (Both Android and iOS).
The Bitcoin Code is Works on any PC, Laptop and Mac.
Multiple Signals Every Day – You will receive average of 21 and 97 trading signals daily which is good enough for you to earn quick profits for your day.
Is The Bitcoin Code Software A Really Winning Auto Trader? Well, actually YES. The Bitcoin Code Investments Ltd is a software developer of high-speed computer that automatically invests the money in the stock exchanges of the world and has only lost once in the last four years. In the past four years, Bitcoin Code system performs trading sessions in 1478 and only once, just the one session ended in loss. The Bitcoin Code system is so easy that you can access the platform using any computer or mobile device, wherever that is based on the web, as long as you have an Internet connection. The Bitcoin Code software can serve as a signal service or work on complete autopilot, which means you do not need to have knowledge of trade or experience to use The Bitcoin Code. How Does The Bitcoin Code Software Work? According to Steve McKay, CEO and the Founder of The Bitcoin Code Trading Investments Ltd, “The Bitcoin Code is a trading system something that existing infrastructure and very fast computers used to buy assets, currency and futures and selling in financial markets. They do this throughout the course of the daily trading sessions based on algorithms. “As another analyst described,” For assets is interest, offering both a buy and sell price. At the end of the day, but sells most of the jobs and earn money. “The Bitcoin Code Investments Ltd. is engaged in 165 exhibitions in 35 countries. The founder and CEO of Steve McKay, who belongs to top 300 list of billionaires by “Forbes” magazine. William R. Johnson, the CEO of the Stock Exchange of New York (1996-2016), is also involved in The Bitcoin Code Software. Although in the overall daily calculations, the trading machine never loses, a small number of speed transactions it performs are actually losses, but victories vastly outnumber the losses.
Steps To Open An Account In The Bitcoin Code System
Clear your cookies, watch the video on official The Bitcoin Code website and sign up by entering your name and an email address you never used before with any type of binary options software.
In Bitcoin Code members area, create your broker account by entering your real information. The Bitcoin Code Trading Software will automatically assign a broker for you.
Deposit money into your account. The normal minimum required deposit is $250, but each broker may have their own requirements.
Start making money right away! Average daily profits are $2,734, but of course it depends on the size of your investment.
Apart from manual trading, The Bitcoin Code also has a great auto trading mode which is actually helpful for any newbie out there who is desperately trying to minimize the learning curve and profit something. We really recommend to use the auto trader feature, why? cause we found some amazing results with The Bitcoin Code Software! To learn more about the Bitcoin Code program or get access to it, click here. Our The Bitcoin Code Results Now, to my The Bitcoin Code results. By the time I’m writing this The Bitcoin Code review I have used The Bitcoin Code APP for over 17 Days. During the last 23 sessions, The Bitcoin Code Software traded a total of 174 signals and 137 were ITM. This is an amazing 85% win rate. I made a deposit of $300 with OptionsMaker and invested $50 per each trade (What can I do, I’m usually very skeptic about new binary trading softxware.) My balance today is $3590, which means I’ve made $3090 in just 3 weeks of using The Bitcoin Code Software, with a daily average of over $140 in profits. That’s not bad at all, but it’s hard not to imagine how my profits could have looked like if my trading amount was $1000 (I could have made $280 per day!). By the way, I usually take just 5-8 signals per day and I’m using The Bitcoin Code system in its autopilot mode. Is The Bitcoin Code SCAM? The Bitcoin Code is a legit, highly profitable binary options trading system! $350 per day is not the promised $2,500 Per Day, true, but it’s still much better than most of the trading software I’ve seen and also if I’d been investing more than just $50 per trade, I would have made much more money! I’m definitely going to keep on Using The Bitcoin Code Software, but I am going to increase my trade amount to $100-150 per trade. Nothing we were able to find linked in anyway to this being a scam. We at The Daily Harrison highly recommend The Bitcoin Code Trading software as any novice or experienced trader could be successful with Bitcoin Code software within no time. Hope you have checked my result as well. More over top 3 binary options websites have endorsed The Bitcoin Code and there is no negative response reported so far, which proves that Bitcoin Code software is profit driven with lesser risk factor and hassle free guess work and analysis. Anyway its all up to you to whether get this FREE and Famous auto trader or buy some junk which would cost you more than a thousand bucks and still fails to give any profit.
Features of The Bitcoin Code APP
The Bitcoin Code is a complete package which takes care of all aspects of your trading requirements. One can easily make close to $500 daily and if you are lucky enough then only sky is the limit. The Bitcoin Code System algorithm is one of its kind. Generally, all auto trading software put a single amount of investment on a single asset. Trading Software that uses Binary Options essentially show your potential trade for fixed dollar amount. Either you take or leave it. When The Bitcoin Code APP presents you with a potential trade, The Bitcoin Code Trading software makes multiple small deals in exchange for a higher fixed dollar amount. Instead of offering one trade, you are offered a small portfolio of stock in exchange for better deal for you. An initial investment of The Bitcoin Code Trading APP just $250 and you are up and running to start trading. $250 is the bare minimum and an accepted industry standard as an initial investment amount. With an ITM hovering around 84%, which is a decent and realistic figure, a serious trader with a decent background can easily make around $3,700-$7,500 every week. The Bitcoin Code offers both Manual and Auto-trading. Each type has its own USPs and you may use whichever suits your style of trading. Trading in Auto-pilot mode is just like as you say earning even in your sleep. Just keep your The Bitcoin Code software running and let The Bitcoin Code do the trade for you. If you are a novice, we would recommend you start trading with the Auto trading option and learn the nuances of the trade. Only after you’ve gained enough insight into how The Bitcoin Code does the trade for you, you should move towards Manual stuff. Imagine what sort of a surprise it would be to see money just discretely scurried into your bank account overnight! Well, one can’t describe that feeling. Manual mode allows you more discretion. You can choose your trades yourself if your experience or intuition prods you to. The Bitcoin Code allows you to trade in almost all the commonly traded assets there are. Be its stocks, currency pairs, indices or commodities. With a wide portfolio of assets available at your disposal, you can just make a selection. High/Low, Short-term, One Touch and Long-Term, Boundary trading options have become a norm. The Bitcoin Code also lets you Follow other traders. Whatever a trader you are following is trading with, whatever he is gaining or losing, you get to see it all. You can also Copy your own trades on the lines of other successful traders you deem impressive. Whats motivating is, you also get to see the live trades of a few Hall of Fame traders who are featured on the Home Page of The Bitcoin Code Website. Initially, The Bitcoin Code software is being given for free to a hand-picked few guys and if you are among those lucky guys, you can also get your hands around it. What The Bitcoin Code is looking for at the moment is to share free copies of Bitcoin Code software to a handful of Beta-testers. Years of research and work have gone behind The Bitcoin Code, you see today. As with anything that has so creatively and carefully crafted for perfection, The Bitcoin Code creators do not want to let any glitches or short-comings creep into their public release. Your only job would be to provide invaluable feedback on the software’s working and whether it goes down well to satisfy your earning targets. And guess what, all this while you enjoy all the benefits of this software which in some days from now would be available for no less than a couple of thousands dollars. (Note that all beta testers will get a free lifetime license copy of The Bitcoin Code, so I recommend all of my readers to join in The Bitcoin Code system ASAP). Our Take on The Bitcoin Code You can think for yourself what would be the quality of the product whose creators are geniuses in their own field. Before taking up this task to review The Bitcoin Code, our team itself procured a copy of the software. We do not believe in blindly following the facts presented to us by the advertorial videos. Rather, we like to get a real-time and first-hand experience before we start preaching the positives or the negatives. Let me tell you, the results we got in the last 3 weeks of using The Bitcoin Code are very encouraging if not downright superb! They claim that The Bitcoin Code trading software has not lost a single trade since the last nine months it has been up and running. Well, it hasn’t for us either. We have been able to round up an ITM of nearly 84% for our trades. Considering the fact that genuine traders, who know their craft well, can rake in very good money with a decent ITM. We’ve seen so many scam software which promise surreal amounts of profits, but are just a decoy and no more. The Bitcoin Code trading platform as a whole is simple in design yet powerful in action. The feel of the trading dashboard is exciting and that topped up with the kind of profits it makes, the experience is out of the Trading world. ->> Click here to Visit Official Website Now<<- Is The Bitcoin Code a SCAM? This is the first question that is bound to come to mind Is The Bitcoin Code Scam? After Weeks of testing and our Binary Options Trading expert team has come to the conclusion that The Bitcoin Code is NOT A Scam. Ask How? A simple test is try to withdraw your profits multiple times and in good numbers. If you are able to do it seamlessly without any caveats involved or any sort of ” No-Go” from your The Bitcoin Code broker, you are in safe hands. We too succeeded to withdraw a part of the close to $17,398 dollars we had made. No questions asked, No Red flags raised! Update (23 January 2017) – Steve McKay The Bitcoin Code is performing exceptionally well. Many The Bitcoin Code traders are reporting positive results with an average ITM Rate of over 87%. How To Join in The Bitcoin Code? Steve McKay The Bitcoin Code software is available for free but to start trading, you need to fund The Bitcoin Code broker account with minimum $250. Follow below steps to join in The Bitcoin Code System.
Visit official website of The Bitcoin Code APP – The Bitcoin Code
Enter your E-mail address in the form which is located on the right side of web page and click on “Start Profiting Now!” Enter more details like Last Name & Phone Number there to complete the The Bitcoin Code registration process. Now, The Bitcoin Code will assign the best broker for you by checking your geographical location. Fund The Bitcoin Code broker’s account with initial deposit of minimum $250. ==> Download Free Bitcoin Code With Bonus $300 From The Official Website ==>
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APL Bot Review 2015 - Is The APL Mobile Bot SCAM Or LEGIT? How Does APL Bot Software Work??. APL Bot by Gunnar Errikson Review
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The Lightning Network is a concept proposed by developers Thaddeus Dryja and Joseph Poon to create a network of trust-less payment channels on top of the Bitcoin Blockchain. The goal of this network is to allow for instantaneously secure Bitcoin payments of any amount, no matter how small.
The Scalability Problem
From the earliest days of Bitcoin, critics took issue with its scalability characteristics. The very first response to Satoshi Nakamoto's described design was a total rejection of the system as being unable to deal with the enormous capacity demands of the world's economy. This message was the first, but far from the last time the scalability of Bitcoin would be called into question. The reason for this skepticism is that in computer science, there are well understood system designs and algorithm designs, with vastly different costs. For example when a design calls for searching through a group of words, an adjustment to make the words alphabetically ordered can produce a potentially billion times faster solution. Simply by using a strategy of checking in exponentially reducing half sections, the search is executed at an exponentially reduced cost. The Blockchain is an example of a system in which growth of use does not just grow cost linearly, but instead at an exponentially increasing rate. The reason for this inefficiency is that when the Blockchain adds a new member who needs to send payments, the new member incurs a cost on all the other members who have a need to fully validate payments. All fully validating members of the Blockchain must sync and validate everything all other members produce. From the perspective of the total system, this means that the total system cost is increasing as a power of two, the polar opposite outcome of what a more ideally scalable and efficient algorithm would yield.
Satoshi Nakamoto realized this deficiency in his original proposal, and came up with a proposed solution. His idea was to reduce the operative mode of validation to be scoped to a user, for users who had less need to validate. Since additional members only incurred costs on validating members, skipping validation from some clients would mean that the impact of adding members was more limited, to be borne only by those who wished to dependably receive payments, such as merchants. This method he named Simplified Payments Verification or SPV, and his original outlined plan would present a less secure but still acceptable model for normal consumers because there would be an alerting mechanism for rule breaches that would signify the system was compromised, proactively preventing attacks on consensus rules. Although long promised, the demands of Bitcoin Core's development meant that Satoshi was never able to deliver on his promised SPV-mode client. Over time others took his ideas and appropriated the SPV name in making their own similar, but not quite equal solutions. Due to wide differences of opinion in the correct methods and workability of SPV mode, a reference project was never created and the alerting system was never crafted. Nevertheless as a working solution many people adopted lower security but more user friendly and less operationally costly wallets, in many varied configurations. Eventually the efficiencies of SPV came to be seen as only a temporary optimization of the Blockchain design. Instead of solving the exponential cost of the Blockchain system, SPV clients could only slow the cost increases. The lack of an alerting system and other faults of SPV meant that anyone receiving payments could not rely on it, muting the model's positive impact on the total system scalability cost. SPV's dependency on miner validation made miner centralization concerns more pronounced. The validation cost burden on merchants and on the overall system began to have secondary negative effects, such as contributing directly to mining centralization by giving outsize advantages to miners with economies of scale. The high cost of a full node contributed to merchant validation centralization by creating an increasingly high cost to validate payments. Many efforts were made to optimize against these increasing costs, but the fundamental design of the Blockchain meant that an increasing tide of transactions would one day overwhelm any possible optimization that did not address the basic peer broadcasting design.
The End of SPV
Another marked failing of SPV clients proved to be that they could never successfully be secured against financial privacy leakage. This represented a threat to users' personal privacy and even to the overall utility of the currency where all equal denomination coins, no matter their origin, should have close to an equal value. SPV clients were also seen as unsustainable in a decentralized configuration: since they cannot sync with each other they must make increasing demands on the limited and increasingly costly altruism of the node operators. SPV could also not provide a solution to another much lamented Blockchain problem: the limitations preventing micro-payments. Early on in Bitcoin's life, to fight floods of small transactions that were called penny-flooding, Satoshi had instituted barriers against very small payments: payments smaller than a tenth of a bitcoin were blocked. Satoshi also created a prioritization system to improve the Blockchain's reliability for high value payments, a marketplace for transactions in every block, with space being prioritized to the highest value transactions as indicated by fees. This further pushed out very small payments, Satoshi often had to regretfully inform people that micro-payments were not feasible. In the early years of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto and the other developers faced many and varied pressing immediate practical operational concerns and development realities of simply keeping the Blockchain reliable, durable and secure. Early plans for scalability and support for broad use-cases gave way to what was seen as the most important use-case: high value transactions with a high level of security and durability against network attack. Over time the system's long-term scalability, various lower priority use cases, and difficult to implement features like instant settlement were all pushed to be developed outside of the Blockchain on a different layer, called Layer 2. Layer 2 systems would still empower transactions denominated in Bitcoin units and be ultimately settled against the Blockchain, but also be able to avoid offering the same guarantees and functionality as the Blockchain, in order to serve a broader range of use cases. The Lightning Network is an example of a Layer 2 service: a network service that seeks to provide instant settlement, tiny micro-payments, improved privacy, in a system that is fundamentally built on the Blockchain but also logically separated.
Lightning's solutions are based on a common and long running proposal for how to use the Blockchain to provide for instantly secure and arbitrarily small transactions: payment channels. Payment channels have existed for many years, in both well established theory and as real libraries and projects. Payment channels are a method of using smart contracts to rapidly trade Bitcoin between two parties, without requiring the Blockchain for more than occasional settlement. The parties create a shared starting balance on the Blockchain and then using signed but un-broadcast transactions rapidly, cheaply, and privately update the balance between them. Because the funds are locked in a multiple signature smart contract, cooperation with the channel partner is required to spend the funds, however a payment channel smart contract also specifies a timeout that acts an escape if there is a failure of cooperation. There are multiple ways to form these channels, but they all offer the same advantages: instant transactions, arbitrarily small denomination payments, low fees, and transaction privacy, although only between two joined together parties. The key innovation in Lightning is to take these joined pairs and link them together in a network: pairs passing along funds to each other in a chain until they reach their destinations. This combines the Blockchain's benefit of sending to arbitrary users with all payment channel benefits like instantly secure transactions.
Opening Payment Channels
To open channels in Lightning, a Bitcoin transaction smart contract is published with rules for how deposited funds may be spent. The rules of the transaction essentially specify that funds deposited cannot be spent unless both parties agree, with the exception that one party can unilaterally refund his deposited funds to himself if he is willing to wait for a time delay before re-spending them. The transaction establishing these rules is called a commitment transaction and a transaction that adds funds into this channel is called a funding transaction. For efficiency, when initiating the channel for the first time both transactions may be folded together into a single Blockchain transaction. There are two proposed methods for accomplishing Lightning's channel timeout requirement. The first mechanism uses a feature called CLTV that first added to Bitcoin in the soft forking Bitcoin Core version 0.11.2, released in November of 2015. This feature allowed for time-locking funds against a certain date, meaning that channel partners could create fixed future time timeouts for their channels. Using this feature would mean that channels be routinely re-created to bump the timeout window forward. Another method was also proposed, using a time-locking feature called CSV that was first added to Bitcoin in the soft forking Bitcoin Core version 0.12.1, released in April of 2016. CSV allowed for specifying relative time locking contracts, meaning that channel partners could instead choose their timeout relative to when they executed their channel escape clause, allowing for channels that could remain open indefinitely. Because of this improvement, CSV timeouts were selected as the standard for Lightning payment channels.
Lightning payment channels work pretty much like normal payment channels, they pass signed transactions between two parties to update their balance. There is however one unique aspect that allows for routing: a third party involved in a Lightning balance update transaction called an R value. This R value, which is simply a lumping together of information about the movement of funds, allows a transaction between parties to be routable. R values represent hash-able information that can be used as Blockchain presentable proof that funds have been moved across the Lightning Network. To understand how the R value allows moving money through the interaction of third party Lightning Network actors, it's important to understand that when spending funds on the Blockchain it is not actually the people who authorize funds. Instead it is only their private keys' signatures that authorize spending, all Blockchain funds are actually locked in contracts that have various rules about how they may be unlocked, the most common being that a singular private key may be used to unlock them. Because Blockchain contracts simply deal in signatures and are scriptable, it is possible to create a type of transaction that is keyed against a signatory who actually knows nothing about the transaction and simply testifies to a system state in a signed way. For example, a server that produced cryptographically signed statements about the weather could be used in a transaction between two parties to be the arbiter of the execution of a weather based funds transfer, without any direct involvement of the server in the transaction itself. This type of transaction is rare, and it was banned as part of a blanket banning effort by Gavin Andresen and Jeff Garzik who objected to general purpose smart contracts on the Blockchain and promoted the idea of a white listing system called standard transactions. In February of 2014, the release of Bitcoin version 0.10.0 mostly lifted this restriction, allowing more novel transaction types. Included in the allowed transaction types were those keyed off of an arbitrary non participatory signature, called hash locked transactions. In February of 2016, Sean Bowe and Pieter Wuille published a work in progress version of a special transaction type that could include a time locked transaction with a hash unlock code. This specific type of transaction, called a Hash Time Locked Contract or HTLC, enables the state changes within Lightning Network channels. Lightning Network clients negotiate with the network to send out a transaction to be routed across the network, yielding an updated set of finalized settlement data which represents the settlement update hash lock solution, the R value. This R value is only represented to the Blockchain as an opaque signature, and it could signify any successful routing, including passing of value from the Bitcoin Blockchain to another Blockchain, like the Bitcoin Testnet. This type of settlement transaction is very powerful, it can be used to create a wide variety of transactions, like multi-signature transactions within the Lightning Network, or even probabilistic settlements within the Lightning Network. A novel payment type called Pre-Image Length Probabilistic Payment, or PILPP has been proposed as a way to send payments on the Lightning Network that are actually provably probabilistic, meaning it is possible to send someone a one bitcoin with a fifty percent chance of arrival. Using this payment type, it is theorized that services could even charge sub-Satoshi fees for their services by asking customers for probabilistic payments of a single Satoshi.
The Lightning Network offers a particularly private solution to executing a transaction, called onion routing, in a method similar to the online privacy system Tor, also known as The Onion Router. The way that Lightning Network transactions are executed, each client considers the destination for funds and then decides on a linked series of pairs to execute the transfer. The client then wraps the pair series information in an encrypted format so that each pair jump is only given information on a need-to-know basis. The intermediary relays are not given information about any of the other pairs, including the final destination of the transfer they are assisting. To avoid a situation where pairs fail to execute their fund passing duty, routed payments are given a TTL, or a time to live, meaning that the payments are no longer valid after a certain point. This allows automatic retrying of payments that fail to route successfully due to a third party fund transfer failure. Transactions can also use fees to incentivize pairs to successfully pass funds in a timely manner; pairs that fail to route may bear an opportunity cost.
In Breach of Contract
From the Blockchain's perspective, Lightning Network funds are just funds deposited in a two of two signature multi-signature wallet. As the balance of funds changes within a channel, the settlement is actually done through a transaction that may be broadcast at any time to the Blockchain to settle funds back to each party. With potentially thousands of balance state change transactions, the balance within the channel is intended to go up and down over time. This presents a major problem for payment channels: what happens if the other party broadcasts an obsolete state of the balance of payment to the network that ignores a recent payment, and therefore steals funds? This situation in which there is a breach of the basic channel contract where an out of date state is broadcast can only be solved by correcting the Blockchain record in response, meaning the stored funds must be monitored for breaches. In the Lightning Network the solution to this issue is to preemptively prepare a special type of transaction called a breach remedy transaction that prevents the invalid old state from being used to steal funds. A breach remedy transaction goes beyond reclaiming the injured party's funds. To discourage theft, the transaction also takes the entirety of the offending party's funds as a penalty. For this reason it is recommended that a channel never be allowed to empty, that some funds to take in penalty always remain, to avoid a situation called an exhausted channel. Breach remedy transactions are formed as a part of every update to the balance of payments in a Lightning Network channel, in a flow called the Revocable Sequence Maturity Contract or RSMC. The RSMC flow is done without requiring trust in the other party, generating and exchanging the guarantees against betrayal before completing the funds state update. Breach remedy transactions are fully formed, fully signed, and they may even be safely published to third parties with rewards for the first publisher attached, to incentivize many eyes watching for and preventing a breach of contract.
Sometimes channel participants may wish to close their channels, for regular channel rebalancing or just to make a Blockchain payment. Lightning Network transactions that settle back to the Blockchain are called exercise settlement transactions, and they are simply standard co-signed transactions. Funds are sent as in any standard multi-signature transaction and the channel is considered closed. This happens instantly, as long as the channel partner is cooperative. In the event that a channel partner is unavailable to close the channel, another option is possible, which is to exercise the CSV clause specified in the channel opening contract. This clause says that any party may unilaterally close the channel and reclaim their funds, provided that they wait for a timeout period to spend their funds again freely. This timeout period is called a dispute period, because it gives the channel partner a chance to dispute the channel close in the case of a breach of contract, when the channel is closed with an out of date balance of payments.
There are a number of challenges inherent in the Lightning Network concept. In the most marked change from the Blockchain, Lightning flips the configuration of the network from a single shared Blockchain ledger to a wide array of individualized Lightning client ledgers. Users holding Lightning Network funds are holding funds that are just as good as Bitcoin, but the funds are actually signed claims on funds. In the Blockchain a global ledger state is synced between everyone and a user must only save their private keys to retain control of their funds. In Lightning, securely holding both the key data and individualized ledger data is the responsibility of the client. One solution to this issue is to use the saved keys to securely encrypt the state data and then save the encrypted data to a networked backup. Another departure from the Bitcoin network model that requires careful consideration is that Lightning transactions do not need to be broadcast to every member by relaying others transactions. Given a more limited number of transactions that are sent, this reveals more information as to the identity of the sender. To solve this, Tor channels could be used to obscure IP information from channel partners, but a more comprehensive and as yet undefined solution may be needed to help obscure other correlation efforts. Funds in Lightning also work differently from Bitcoin funds. The Lightning channels lock the funds to an agreement with a Lightning relay, in which a set of cooperative rules are agreed upon to enable the Lightning protocol. But in the case of a cooperation failure, which can simply mean the connected Lightning relay suffering downtime, user funds will be locked from use for up to the preset lock time, which could be up to a week. To deal with this, it's suggested that the risk of locking be spread over multiple channels, or that a user be encouraged to limit their use of Lightning to smaller amounts of spending money. Spending down entire channels is also not an efficient use of Lightning, so that reinforces the idea of users separating their funds into spending money in Lightning channels and savings in traditional Bitcoin wallets. Another tricky issue with Lightning funds is that a channel partner may try to steal funds from the channel. Wallets must either be semi-regularly online to prevent that, or third parties must be available who can be relied upon to prevent theft. Theoretically, miners could also execute a theft directly, by gaining majority control of the network for the dispute period and blocking any breach remedy transactions from occurring, although some of the standard guards against miners taking that action would still apply, such as their general block reward incentives. This means that Lightning benefits from a decentralized set of miners and a set of users who are able to access the Blockchain cheaply to respond to breaches of channel contracts. There are actually two configuration types of Lightning, similar to how there are two common types of Bitcoin clients: light Lightning clients who only spend money occasionally, and full Lightning nodes who act as relays and comprise the body of the Lightning network. There is a benefit associated with running a Lightning relay: as transactions are passed through a relay, they carry a reward of small market-based fees. But there is also a potential cost with running a Lightning relay, these relays are software that must have the agency to move funds between their channels. Relays need to have some automated access to user funds, to complete the signatures needed for channel transaction routing. It is recommended that relay operators be sure to secure their systems from unauthorized access to protect the capital required to operate a relaying node. Lighter Lightning clients do not share this issue, by only connecting occasionally they may secure their funds in colder storage and through multi-signature setups, as is the standard for secure Bitcoin storage.
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